Mês: setembro 2016

Safety and efficacy of siponimod for relapsing-remitting MS Siponimod study shows reduced MS activity and low relapse rates with no new safety concerns Last updated: 28th September 2016   Fingolimod is an oral tablet, approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2010 for relapsing-remitting MS. Similar to fingolimod, siponimod works by trapping a certain type of immune cell (called a T-cell) in the body’s lymph nodes. This stops them from getting into the brain and spinal cord, where they would cause damage to the protective myelin covering around the nerves. Compared to fingolimod, siponimod performs more selectively on T-cells and therefore may have fewer side effects while maintaining similar beneficial effects. The current study is an extension of a previously reported trial on siponimod (called the BOLD study). It further investigates whether this oral tablet is safe and effective for people with relapsing-remitting MS. 184 people with MS from 73 centres in the USA and nine centres in Europe, Canada, and Russia took part in this study. They were separated into five groups, each given different dosages of siponimod. MS activity, as demonstrated by MRI scans, was reduced across all groups. However, there was no change in clinical disability measured using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). There was no effect on the rate of brain shrinkage, which is higher in people with MS than healthy people. The...

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EM = MS

The effect of salt intake on MS relapses in children Research in the USA finds no link between salt intake and time to relapse in children with MS Last updated: 28th September 2016   Salt, or sodium chloride, can affect the immune system.  For example, researchers have previously shown that adding salt to the diet of an animal model that resembles MS in humans, can change the severity of the disease. However, it remains unclear whether a change in dietary intake of salt can reduce the number of relapses in people with MS, especially in children with MS who show higher rate of attacks. In this study from the University of California, San Francisco MS Centre, researchers looked at the records of 174 children with MS from 15 pediatric centres across the USA. They assessed daily salt intake using questionnaires that children or their parents had to respond to. Researchers did not find any significant association between the amount of salt intake and relapses. The authors concluded that salt intake is not associated with decreased time to relapse in children with MS. Read the full article (external website opens in a new window)   See the...

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EM = MS

The role of gut microbes in multiple sclerosis Researchers find a link between MS and microbes living in the gut Last updated: 28th September 2016   Billions of microbes live inside the human body, especially in the gut where there are hundreds of thousands of different species (bacteria and viruses). Many of these are beneficial and play an important role in the immune system. Researchers have shown that these microbes could also play a role in diseases, such as type-1 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. They have also shown that in laboratory animals that have been manipulated to show an MS-like disease (known as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis), gut microbes can affect myelin development. Myelin is a fatty material that insulates and protects nerves, enabling them to conduct impulses between the brain and different parts of the body effectively. Myelin is damaged in MS. In this study from Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, researchers analysed gut microbes from faecal samples in people with MS and healthy volunteers. They found that people with MS had different patterns of gut microbes than those of their healthy counterparts. They confirmed these findings in a second group of people with MS using breath tests that show the activity of microbes in the gut. Interestingly, the gut microbes were different in people with MS who were receiving treatment for MS compared to those not receiving any...

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EM = MS

Does season of birth contribute to the risk of developing MS in the UK? Researchers find that birth month affects the risk of MS in the UK Last updated: 28th September 2016   The month or season during which an individual is born may affect the risk of different diseases such as diabetes, or asthma. This effect is the result of environmental factors that are not constant over the year for the mother and the unborn baby. For example, babies born in the UK in April have been exposed to less sunshine (less vitamin D) through their mothers, than those born in November. Therefore, being born during spring (March, April, and May) may increase the risk of developing MS. However, other studies have challenged these findings underlining more complex factors that may affect the risk of MS, which may not be easily explained by the season of birth. In this large study which included more than 21,000 people with MS, authors from Oxford University, UK, asked whether the month of birth had any effect on the risk of developing MS across the UK. They found that there is a significant effect of month of birth on the risk of MS. Babies who were born during April (peak) had the highest risk of being affected by MS later in life, and those born during November (trough) had the lowest risk...

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Vladimir Putin

USSR could have been reformed, there was no need to destroy it   RT 23 Sep, 2016   The Communist Party of the Soviet Union should have transformed the bloc into a democratic entity rather than see it collapse, Russian President Vladimir Putin has said.   “You know my attitude towards the collapse of the Soviet Union. There was no need to do it. Reforms could have been undertaken, including those of democratic nature,” the Russian president told the leaders of the parties which won seats in last week’s general election. “But I want to point out that the Communist Party was in charge of our former homeland, the USSR, not any other,” Putin added. The Communist Party of Russia, which evolved from its Soviet predecessor, is among the political forces represented in Russia’s new parliament. The party’s leader, Gennady Zyuganov, complained to the president that the Communists had suffered from increased and unfair competition during the campaigning, resulting in them gaining a smaller share of seats. “The political system that has 77 parties and 14 running for the parliament prevents normal dialogue, which is bad, in my opinion,” he said. In April 2005, President Vladimir Putin called the USSR’s collapse “the major geopolitical disaster of the [last] century” in a public address to the Russian parliament. This quote was circulated by the international mass media that claimed that it revealed the...

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